• Spreadsheet

    Information and Computer Studies Form 2

    Lunodzo Mwinuka

    Teacher at Mzumbe University in Morogoro

    The world of Technology is rapidly advancing with time. The need for software to improve efficiency is also increasing in majority of organisations. Financial and education sectors being in second position after Information Technology. One of highly demanded software in market are spreadsheet programs.

    Spreadsheet is a large sheet having data and information arranged in a series of rows and columns (cells). They were initially designed for accountants but due to the increase in the need, it is now being used across industries.

    Spreadsheet program is a software which mimics spreadsheet operations electronically. An electronic spreadsheet program is an interactive computer application such as Excel, OpenOffice Calc, or Google Sheets. 

    When you open the Spreadsheet application you will see a number of rows and columns arranged in a grid. Each intersection of a column and a row is called a cell.

    Microsoft Excel
    Ms are the popular producers of Spreadsheet program called Microsoft Excel. They are in different version to which till now we have Ms Excel 2003, 
    Ms Excel 2007, Ms Excel 20010, Ms Excel 2013 and Ms Excel 2016 (which is the latest as on May, 2018). Ms Excel program is being attached in  Microsoft Office Programs containing Ms Word, Access, Power point, Publisher, Outlook, One note e.t.c

    Microsoft Excel Basics

    In Excel, a computerized spreadsheet is called a worksheet, while the file used to store worksheets is called a workbook.

    Starting Excel Program

    There are different ways to start Ms Excel program to which they depend how the computer has been configured. One may start a program when it has an icon on desktop, it is attached on task bar or when it is attached on start menu. And again, when the program is attached on the Task bar, one may use keyboard shortcuts to start it.

    General steps (Start menu)

    1. Click the start menu at the bottom left (or use windows key on keyboard)
    2. Click/Navigate to All programs
    3. Click/Navigate to Microsoft Office
    4. Click Microsoft Excel
    5. The program will open

    The Excel program window has the same basic parts as all office programs: the Title bar, the Quick access Toolbar, the Ribbon, Backstage view and the status bar.

    Ms Excel 2016

    Parts of the Workbook.

    In the previous versions of the Ms Excel program, a workbook contains three worksheets by default.

    The worksheet displayed in the work area is the active worksheet.

    • Columns appear vertically and are identified by letters while Rows appear horizontally and are identified by numbers.
    • A Cell is the intersection of a row and a column. And each cell is identified by a unique Cell reference
    • The cell in the worksheet in which you can type data is called the active cell.
    • The Name Box, or cell reference area, displays the cell reference of the active cell. 
    • The Formula Bar displays a formula when a worksheet cell contains a calculated value.
    • A formula is an equation that calculates a new value from values currently in a worksheet.

    Opening an existing Workbook

    • Opening a workbook means loading an existing workbook file from a drive into the program window. 
    • To open an existing workbook, you click the File tab on the Ribbon to display Backstage view,
    • Click Open in the navigation bar.
    • The Open dialog box appears which allows you to navigate to a file location
    • Simply double-click the file to open it

    Saving a Workbook

    There are three common ways which can be used to save a workbook. 

    First, is by using keyboard shortcut, second is by Quick Access bar and third by navigating through Menus on the ribbon.

    By using keyboard shortcuts, you simply click  Ctrl + S  and the dialog box will appear letting you specify the location of the file and name. (If you are saving your document on first time), this command only updates the contents when it is used on a saved document.

    By Excel Ribbon, you go to file menu and on navigation panel find for "save" command.

    • The Save command saves an existing workbook, using its current name and save location. 
    • The Save As command lets you save a workbook with a new name or to a new location.
    Moving an Active cell in worksheet.
    • The easiest way to change the active cell in a worksheet is to move the pointer to the cell you want to make active and click.
    • You can display different parts of the worksheet by using the mouse to drag the scroll box in the scroll bar to another position.
    •  You can also move the active cell to different parts of the worksheet using the keyboard or the Go To command.
    Keys for moving the active cell in a worksheet

    Selecting a group of Cells
    • A group of selected cells is called a range. The range is identified by its range reference, for example, A3:C5.
    • An adjacent range, all cells touch each other and form a rectangle.
    • To select an adjacent range, click the cell in a corner of the range, drag the pointer to the cell in the opposite corner of the range, and release the mouse button.
    • A nonadjacent range includes two or more adjacent ranges and selected cells. 
    • To select a nonadjacent range, select the first adjacent range or cell, press the Ctrl key as you select the other cells or ranges you want to include, and then release the Ctrl key and the mouse button.

    Entering data in a Cell

    Worksheet cells can contain text, numbers, or formulas.

    • Text is any combination of letters and numbers and symbols.
    • Numbers are values, dates, or times.
    • Formulas are equations that calculate a value. 

    You enter data in the active cell. 

    Changing data in a Cell
    You can edit, replace, or clear data. 
    • You can edit cell data in the Formula Bar or in the cell. The contents of the active cell always appear in the Formula Bar. 
    • To replace cell data, select the cell, type new data, and press the Enter button on the Formula Bar or the Enter key or the Tab key. 
    To clear the active cell, you can use the Ribbon, the keyboard, or the mouse.

    Searching for data
    • The Find command locates data in a worksheet, which is particularly helpful when a worksheet contains a large amount of data. You can use the Find command to locate words or parts of words. 
    • The Replace command is an extension of the Find command. Replacing data substitutes new data for the data that the Find command locates.
    Previewing and printing a Worksheet
    • You can print a worksheet by clicking the File tab on the Ribbon, and then clicking Print in the navigation bar to display the Print tab.
    • The Print tab enables you to choose print settings.
    • The Print tab also allows you to preview your pages before printing.
    Closing a Workbook and Exiting the Excel
    • You can close a workbook by clicking the File tab on the Ribbon, and then clicking Close in the navigation bar. Excel remains open. 
    • To exit the workbook, click the Exit command in the navigation bar.
    • The primary purpose of a spreadsheet is to solve problems involving numbers. The advantage of using a computer spreadsheet is that you can complete complex and repetitious calculations quickly and accurately. 
    • A worksheet consists of columns and rows that intersect to form cells. Each cell is identified by a cell reference, which combines the letter of the column and the number of the row.
    • The first time you save a workbook, the Save As dialog box opens so you can enter a descriptive name and select a save location. After that, you can use the Save command in Backstage view or the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar to save the latest version of the workbook. 
    • You can change the active cell in the worksheet by clicking the cell with the pointer, pressing keys, or using the scroll bars. The Go To dialog box lets you quickly move the active cell anywhere in the worksheet.
    • A group of selected cells is called a range. A range is identified by the cells in the upper-left and lower-right corners of the range, separated by a colon. To select an adjacent range, drag the pointer across the rectangle of cells you want to include. To select a nonadjacent range, select the first adjacent range, hold down the Ctrl key, select each additional cell or range, and then release the Ctrl key.
    • Worksheet cells can contain text, numbers, and formulas. After you enter data or a formula in a cell, you can change the cell contents by editing, replacing, or deleting it. 
    • You can search for specific characters in a worksheet. You can also replace data you have searched for with specific characters. 
    • Before you print a worksheet, you should check the page preview to see how the printed pages will look.
    • When you finish your work session, you should save your final changes and close the workbook.

    Uploaded content files

      11       10


    Izmir Rimzi   Posted on 22nd Jul, 2019

    amaizing xana teacher big up

    Arafat Mohamed   Posted on 13th Dec, 2018


    Owen Mwamkinga   Posted on 15th Sep, 2018

    ticha e tufundishe jinsi ya kufanya internet yako iende fasta

    Frank Willy   Posted on 11th Sep, 2018

    internet je ticha

    Lunodzo Mwinuka   Posted on 25th Jul, 2018

    Dear George, yes you can. All you have to do is to load the raw data and use macro tools to analyze them. You may need knowledge on Ms Excel macros. It's usually available in Advance Ms Excel trainings.

    MAEDSON MAHONGE   Posted on 2nd Jul, 2018


    George Maluka   Posted on 29th Jun, 2018

    Thanks sir for the insights. Can i also use excel to analyse a field data? If so how would i go about?

    Martin January   Posted on 14th Jun, 2018

    Thats good

    Rajabu Juma   Posted on 1st Jun, 2018

    umetisha mwalimu

    Aritamba Bisansaba   Posted on 29th May, 2018



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